2014年9月5日 星期五

John Dodd 陶德

Finally, more information on John Dodd, father of oolong tea and long-time resident of Tamsui, provided by Niki JP Alsford, author of "The Witnessed Account of British Resident John Dodd at Tamsui" (2010) in a discussion thread in Katy Biggs's facebook posts.
終於找到有關陶德,台灣烏龍茶之父和長期的淡水住民,的訊息了。資料是轉載自Katy Biggs 【洪惠文 - 淡水第一任街長洪以南曾孫女】臉書的相關評論線,主要是基於Niki JP Alsford所詮釋的陶德原著【Journal of a blockaded resident in North Formosa during the Franco-Chinese War, 1884-5】,以及Asford本人的意見和看法。

(1) First, was John Dodd a Scot or an Englishman?

The answer seems to be an Englishman if his birthplace is taken into account. Following Alsford's lead, Biggs has found the baptism record of John Dodd:
以出生地來說,他應該是英格蘭人,由Asford的資料,Biggs 找到陶德的受洗記錄

Baptism: 11 Nov 1838 St John, Preston, Lancashire, England
John Dodd - [Child] of John Dodd & Nanny
Abode: Shambles
Occupation: Butcher
Baptised by: Charles Wagstaff Curate
Register: Baptisms 1838 - 1840, Page 56, Entry 444

Dodd's parents were therefore John Dodd (the senior) and Nanny Dodd* (*Or Nancy Dodd - see Alsford's book, footnote on p 5).
所以陶德是出生在英格蘭的藍卡郡,他的父親也叫John Dodd,母親是Nanny Dodd (或Nancy Dodd - Asford 著作第5頁註腳).

However, in the book by 陳政三 "泡茶走西仔反: 清法戰爭台灣外記" page 001, first phrase: "陶德 英國蘇格蘭人 [i.e., a Scot]".  The Tamsui Township History has only one sentence mentioning 陶德 as 英人 which can be either British or English.
不過陳政三編譯陶德原著【泡茶走西仔反: 清法戰爭台灣外記】的第一頁第一句就說了,“陶德  英國蘇格蘭人”. 【淡水鎮志】則僅提“英人"陶德成立寶順洋行“,沒有注明是不列顛(包括蘇格蘭)還是英格蘭英人.

Alsford is of the opinion that (1) it is through John Dodd’s mother’s family (nee Atkinson) that a Scottish heritage exists. At present this is an educated guess based on his family connections and (2) I honestly believe that the Scots had (as in many ways they still do) a reputation as being men of valour – see Grant Simpson’s, 1992 book on The Scottish Soldier Abroad. It is not over-fanciful to imagine that both Dodd and Pickering [Pickering was born in Eastwood, Nottinghamshire on 9 June 1840 – and again is not Scottish] wanted to adopt such mannerism and may well have identified themselves as Scottish – alternatively, particularly in the case of Dodd, when asked where he was from he probably would have said close to ‘Scotland’ and this later stuck.
Alsford 認為陶德是蘇格蘭人的記錄或傳說的源由有兩個可能,(1) 他從研究結果推測陶德的蘇格蘭血統來自母親的娘家Atkinson家族,(2) 蘇格蘭人一向被認為是驍勇善戰的男子漢 (可參考Grant Simpson的1992 著作【The Scottish Soldier Abroad】)。所以像陶德及同時代的Pickering(註: William Pickering, 1840-1907,是英格蘭人,香港海關官員,來過台灣,著【Pioneering in Formosa】,後任新加坡華人保護官),很可能都自稱蘇格蘭人,連行為習俗都也悉仿蘇格蘭人。也許當年有人問起陶德原籍,他的回答是蘇格蘭人,可能就是如此,沿傳迄今。

(2) Did John Dodd have a family while in Taiwan since it is believed that Dodd fathered two children Valentine and Elaine? 

According to Alsford, "John did father two children – though recent research (namely from family photos) seems to confirm that Taihee (wife of his children) was actually from Hong Kong. So Dodd was probably not a ‘father’ in the traditional sense whilst in Taiwan. General Victorian sensibilities towards cross-cultural marriage are well documented particularly the transnational histories of Eurasian children (of which both John Valentine and Elaine Dodd; as well as MacKay’s children were considered)."

(3) What happened after Dodd left Tamsui?

Again, Alsford: "Finally on his return to England he married Mary on 7 August 1893 in Atcham in Shropshire (a border country with Wales). Mary’s father was a cabinet maker from a town (Porthmadoc) not too far from where Dodd finally settles (Trefriw) in a house he names Glen Mair (or Mary’s Valley). As the census confirms Dodd was a man of independent means (‘retired merchant from China’) he more than likely decided to move closer to Mary’s ancestral home."
根據Alsford, 陶德返英後,在1893年8月7日與Mary結婚,地點是靠近與威爾士邊界相近的Shropshire郡Atcham鎮。Mary的父親是製作櫥櫃的木匠,來自Porthmadoc,和陶德最後定居的Trefriw鎮不遠。陶德命名他的住宅為Glen Mair (意為Mary's Valley瑪麗山谷)。當地的戶口調查列陶德為富人(“從中國退休的商人”)。陶德大約是最後決定定居在Mary的老家,沒有再回原籍。

Niki Alsford is currently at School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London,  
email: na29@soas.ac.uk 
We also wish to thank Jerome F Keating for pointing the way