2009年5月9日 星期六

法國海軍陸戰槍兵 Fusiliers marins

在漁人碼頭戰爭中,法軍陸戰隊是何許人物,裝備又是如何呢.
So who were these French soldiers who fought in the Battle of Fisherman's Wharf and how were they equipped?

原來是他們是 Fusiliers marins (英文為 Navy riflemen 或 Marine infantrymen),乃法國陸戰隊中的一支特種部隊,於1856年6月5日建軍.是海軍士兵經陸戰訓練而成,每一連編制70人,由一名海軍中尉軍官 [連長] 及兩名少尉 [排長] 率領.他們是中法戰爭中,在越南和臺灣的攻擊主力.
They were the Fusiliers marins, a special branch of the French Marines, created on June 5, 1856. They were sailors trained in ground battles. Each company had 70 men led by one lieutenant and two lieutenants JGs. They were the main attacking forces in both Tonkin and Taiwan during the Sino-French War.

下左是一 Fusilier marin 的畫像 (年代不詳).
Bottom left is the portrait of a Fusilier marin (of unknown date).

從描畫法軍進攻東京 (北越) 的北寧與劉永福的黑旗軍大戰 (03/12/1884) 時的圖片,可以看到軍服應是:
They were equipped thus (cf color picture below):

深藍水手帽加紅纓頂 (Dark blue sailor's beret with a red fuzzy ball on top)
水手披肩 (Seaman's collar)
深藍紅裡外衣 (Dark blue tunic with red lining)
淺藍長褲 (Light blue trousers)
綁腿靴 (Boots with leggings)
此外,步槍一 (plus a long rifle)
兩條披肩帶(可能掛水壺及彈藥盒各一) (Two shoulder straps each with a canteen and an ammunition pouch/case attached)

法軍官則全身深藍,上衣紅內裡,馬褲白條邊,裹紅布腰帶,戴米色防暑盔,登黑長靴,左右手各執手槍及指揮刀.馮子材的相片中佩帶的法國軍刀,應是當年的戰利品.北寧之戰時也有東非兵團 (下圖最左黑人兵) 及外籍軍團參戰.
The French officer wore dark blue uniform with red lining, a red sash around his waist, and a beige pith helmet, holding a pistol in the left and a sword in the right hand. A photo of Sun Kai-Hua showed the commander posturing with a French saber which was probably a trophy from the battle taken from one of the French lieutenants. The African Battalion (the left most figure in the picture below) and the Foreign Legion both participated in the battle of Bac-Ninh (March 12, 1884), fighting the Chinese Black Flag Army commanded by General Liu Yong-Fu.
至於Fusilier marin 所用步槍是單發式 Fusil Gras M80 Modèle 1874:
The rifle used by Fusilier marin was the single-shot Fusil Gras M80 model 1874:
其長 1.31 公尺,重 4.15 公斤, 口徑 11 mm, 裝有三角形切面刺刀,由聖倚天 St Etienne 兵工廠製造.
It was a 11-mm caliber rifle manufactured by the St Etienne Military Works, measuring 1.31 m in length, weighing 4.15 kg and it also had a bayonet with triangular-shaped blade (in cross-section).

傳統 Fusilier marin 的軍歌:
The Fusilier marin chant:
video
歌詞首部 - 法文加翻譯如次(可以想像到漁人碼頭之戰法軍登陸後列隊前進的情景):
The beginning lyrics - with translation (possibly sung after landing and beginning to march on the beach at Fisherman's Wharf):

Les fusiliers partent pour l’aventure (陸戰槍兵開始玩命)
Soleil couchant les salut (連日頭都會來致敬)
Chez l’ennemie la vie sera très dure (敵人日子不會好過囉)
Pour ceux qui pillent et qui tuent (特別是搶劫殺人的那一群)

上引 video 唱的是合唱部:
And the refrains sung in the above video:

France o ma France très belle (我美麗的法蘭西)
Pour toi je ferai bataille (我為妳而戰)
Je quitterai père et mère (我離開了爸爸和媽媽)
Sans espoir de les revoir jamais (也許就不能再見到他們的面了)

En pagayant sur la mer toujours belle (在美麗的海上航行)
Ils songeront à leur vie (會想到生命的意義)
Ils peuvent demain devenir éternels (是要永世流芳)
Ils tomberont dans l’oubli (還是默默無聞)

Si d’aventure la mort les refusent (命也玩了而死神也拒收)
Ils rentreront dans leur port (返回到出發港口)
Et ils boiront le champagne qui fuse (痛飲香檳酒)
A la santé de leurs morts (祝戰歿同伴們健康)

2 則留言:

  1. It is an excellent idea to write with both English and Kanji in order to get more readers.
    為増加読者数目、使用英文和漢字両種語言是好辧法。
    張三

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  2. Dear Mr Chang,張先生您好,

    We'll try our best. We have noticed visitors from foreign lands in addition to readers from Taiwan. Everyone is welcome.
    我們盡力而為.除臺灣讀者外確是有不少國外人士來訪.歡迎各位.

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