This map is from the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Published by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and edited by James Geikie and W.A. Taylor. Volume XII, 1896.
The geographic names are in Romanized Hoklo (Hokkien, Taiwanese, 福佬話, 河洛語, 台語). The Romanization was started by early Presbyterian missionaries who had successfully translated the Bible into readable Taiwanese. The Presbyterian church began in 1865 with the work of English missionaries in the south and Canadian missionaries in the north (i.e., Dr George Leslie Mackay in Danshui) in 1872.
You can click on the map to get an enlarged view. In the north, Tamsui (Danshui, 淡水), Ta-Tun Shan (大屯山), Bang-ka (Manka, 艋胛 - now Wanhua, 萬華), Twa-du-tia (DaDaoChen, 大稻埕 - the famed 大稻埕碼頭 is now outside Gate #5 of the Danshui River levee), Taibak (Taipei, 台北), Ke-Lang (Keelung, 雞籠, now 基隆), Sin Tek (Hsin-chu, 新竹), Gi-lan (Ilan, 宜蘭), and Saw-o (Suao, 蘇澳) are clearly marked.
Also, the Spanish influence in the early 1600s can still be seen today: 三貂角 ("Samtiau", eastern-most cape on the map) was derived from San Diego. In Taipei-Danshui area, the MRT-Danshui line has a 關渡 (GuanDu) station, 關渡 (some claimed it was 甘豆 GamDao in 台語, although the locals pronounce it GanDao, it seems to have been 江頭 for a while) probably originated from Casidor (i.e., the cape). And another station 唭哩岸 (Qilian) was probably named after a Spanish colony in the Philipines, Bahia-Irigan (meaning the Bahia "bay" in Tagalog - which is similar to 平埔Pin-Pu's "kil-lrigan", also the "bay").
The etymology of Hoklo-Taiwanese can now be traced to the Fujian (Min, 閩) language, Japanese, Dutch, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese, locally developed terms (and a slightly different accent between northern and southern Taiwanese), and aboriginal languages. English is of course a newcomer, relatively speaking. At least 10,000 is still 一萬; it has already become 十千 in Singapore.